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He2+ ion beam irradiated metallic glass strip Fe80Si7.43B12.57, metallic W and alloy V90.62Cr4.69Ti4.69 with the energy of 500keV were used to compare their characteristics of resistance to irradiation at the fluences of 1×1017, 2×1017, 5×1017 and 1×1018 ions/cm2. Metallic glass Fe80Si7.43B12.57 remained amorphous at different fluences of He2+ irradiation without significant surface damage. The root mean square roughness ρrms became greater after irradiation, and increased slightly with the increase of fluence. TEM analysis revealed the presence of tiny helium bubbles near the surface of the metallic glass and the end of the range of helium ions, and the metallic glass kept good soft magnetic properties. At the fluence of 1×1018 ions/cm2 for metallic W, larger sunken areas appeared on the surface of some grains, and root mean square roughness ρrms increased significantly. Alloy V90.62Cr4.69Ti4.69 blistered and flaked at the fluence of 5×1017 ions/cm2, and even multi-layer flaking occurred when the fluence reached 1×1018 ions/cm2. The resistance to He2+ ion beam irradiation of metallic glass Fe80Si7.43B12.57 was better than that of metallic M, and the resistance to He2+ ion beam irradiation of alloy V90.62Cr4.69Ti4.69 was poorer.
Plasma facing materials for fusion reactor exposes to 14MeV intensive neutron beam irradiation and sustains an intense mixture of ionized and energetic neutral species of hydrogen isotopes (D, T) and He ash [1], so the material problem has become one of the key issues of the fusion reactor. For conventional crystalline materials, the strong interaction of irradiation particles with lattice defects may cause displaced damages and microstructure changes [2], and the 14MeV fusion neutron transmutation helium may cause irradiation damages to the materials, thus affecting the mechanical properties [3]. As to the use of ion beam irradiation for exploring the irradiation resistance of materials [4], the interaction of helium ions with lattice defects is stronger than that of hydrogen ions with lattice defects [5], and helium ions are difficult to dissolve in metal, so helium bubbles may be formed in the peak helium concentration areas on the surfaces of the materials [6]. Moreover, helium ion beam irradiation also may cause greater changes in material properties, thus resulting in very serious damage to conventional crystalline materials [7].
Metallic glass is characterized by arrangement of atoms in a short-range ordered and long-range disordered amorphous structure [8, 9] without the lattice defects in conventional crystalline materials [10] which makes it have the irradiation resistance that is different from those of conventional crystalline materials [11], and get a wide range of applications and researches [12]. Due to its advantages such as higher crystallization transition temperature, wider super-cooled liquid region, good temperature stability, easy preparation, low activation, etc [13, 14], metallic glass strip Fe80Si7.43B12.57 may be used as an irradiation resistant material in fusion device.
In this paper, the He2+ ion beam with the energy of 500KeV was used to irradiate metallic glass Fe80Si7.43B12.57, polycrystalline W [15], currently the most promising plasma facing material for fusion reactor, and alloy V90.62Cr4.69Ti4.69[16], an important candidate structural material for fusion reactor, for the research on the impact of different fluences of He2+ irradiation on the microstructures and material properties of metallic glass Fe80Si7.43B12.57, polycrystalline W and alloy V90.62Cr4.69Ti4.69, in order to compare the resistance to He2+ ion beam induced irradiation damage among Fe-based metallic glass, metallic W and vanadium alloy.
The thickness and width of metallic glass strip Fe80Si7.43B12.57 were 35μm and 10mm. The lump dimensions of polycrystalline W were 5 × 10 × 2mm. The lump dimensions of alloy V90.62Cr4.69Ti4.69 were 2 × 8 × 2mm. Metallic glass strip Fe80Si7.43B12.57 was successively cleaned with acetone and alcohol test solution. After pre-grinding and polishing, metallic W and alloy V90.62Cr4.69Ti4.69 successively underwent ultrasonic cleaning with acetone and alcohol test solution. Afterwards, Fe80Si7.43B12.57, W and V90.62Cr4.69Ti4.69 underwent irradiation experiments.
Analysis of Simulation Results using SRIM
Monte Carlo based SRIM was used for the simulation of ion beam irradiation process and the calculation of energy loss, range, sputtering yield, DPA, etc of incident helium ions in Fe80Si7.43B12.57, W and V90.62Cr4.69Ti4.69. During the interaction of incident ions with the material, electronic energy loss and nuclear energy loss may occur. Fig.1 shows the SRIM calculated incident energy-dependent distribution curve of nuclear energy loss and electronic energy loss caused to metallic glass Fe80Si7.43B12.57 by the He ion beam irradiation with the incident energy of 1eV to 2MeV. The nuclear energy loss and electronic energy loss caused by the incidence of He ions showed a trend of first increase and then decrease with the increase of the incident energy, and when the incident ion energy was greater than 100keV, nuclear energy loss was minimal and electronic energy loss held a dominant position. The growth of electronic energy loss of metallic glass Fe80Si7.43B12.57 slowed down and showed a gradual declining trend after 500keV. The He2+ ion beam with the energy of 500KeV was selected to carry out irradiation damage research upon the materials.
Table 1 shows the SRIM resulted average atomic number, electronic energy loss, surface binding energy, density, average displacement threshold, range and sputtering yield induced by helium ion beam irradiation with the energy of 500KeV in Fe80Si7.43B12.57, W and V90.62Cr4.69Ti4.69. The average atomic numbers and atomic masses of Fe80Si7.43B12.57 and V90.62Cr4.69Ti4.69 were less than those of W, thus their electronic stopping cross section for the interaction of ions with the target material was smaller, so the electronic energy loss was lower. The electronic energy loss of Fe80Si7.43B12.57 was close to that of alloy V90.62Cr4.69Ti4.69, and both of them were less than that of W. The slowing process of incident ions in Fe80Si7.43B12.57 was longer; the range of He ions in Fe80Si7.43B12.57 was close to that in V90.62Cr4.69Ti4.69, and was greater than that in metallic W. Due to smaller electronic stopping cross section, lower surface binding energy and greater density, the sputtering yield of Fe80Si7.43B12.57 was greater than those of V90.62Cr4.69Ti4.69 and W, and was close to the results obtained from the calculation of sputtering yield from ACAT simulation by YASUNORI YAMAMURA, et al [18].
DPA is a method to measure the level of irradiation damage in materials, which indicates the displacement times per atom in the lattice at a given fluence. DPA [19] can be obtained from the vacancy and phonon distribution calculated by SRIM. The computational expression of DPA can be derived from NRT equation [20],
In the equation, DPA is the displacement per atom in the target material, Nd is the number of displacements in the target material, Ed is the average displacement threshold of the target material, Tdam is the energy loss of each incident ion per unit depth,   is the fluence of incident ions per unit area, and   is the atom density of the target material. The incident depth dependent distribution curve for the DPA caused by He ion beam irradiation to Fe80Si7.43B12.57, V90.62Cr4.69Ti4.69 and W at the fluence of 1×1018 ions/cm2 is shown in Fig.2. As can be seen from the figure, the incident depths corresponding to the peak DPAs of Fe80Si7.43B12.57, V90.62Cr4.69Ti4.69 and W are in the vicinity of respective ranges. Due to irradiation, a large number of vacancies and phonons existed on the end of range, and the peak DPAs appeared near the range. The Tdam/ρ values of Fe80Si7.43B12.57, V90.62Cr4.69Ti4.69 and W were close, the average displacement threshold of Fe80Si7.43B12.57 was greater than that of V90.62Cr4.69Ti4.69 and was less than that of W, so the vacancies and replacement atoms of Fe80Si7.43B12.57 were less than those of V90.62Cr4.69Ti4.69, but were more than those of W, and thus W had less DPA.
Microstructure Analysis
Fig.3 shows the XRDs of metallic glass Fe80Si7.43B12.57, polycrystalline W and alloy V90.62Cr4.69Ti4.69 before and after different fluences of He2+ irradiation. It can be found from Fig.3A that Fe-based metallic glass maintains an amorphous state at different irradiation fluences. The temperature rise during He2+ irradiation was not obvious, and the target surface temperature (below 100 ℃) was much lower than the initial crystallization temperature of metallic glass Fe80Si7.43B12.57 (Tx, 535 ℃), which was the main reason why no crystallization phenomenon appeared in Fe-based metallic glass. Fig.3B shows the XRD of metallic W. It can be seen from the Fig.3B that metallic W retains its body-centered cubic structure after He2+ irradiation at different fluences. Fig.3C shows the XRD of alloy V90.62Cr4.69Ti4.69 before and after He2+ irradiation at different fluences, and alloy V90.62Cr4.69Ti4.69 is a body-centered cubic structure, with lattice-preferred orientations (110) under He2+ irradiation. After He2+ ion bombardment, alloy V90.62Cr4.69Ti4.69 as solid solution slipped along the planes with densest atomic packing and rotated together with its slip plane, causing a certain degree of orderly orientation of polycrystalline grains and the emergence of grain-preferred orientations.
Fig.4 shows the SEM photographs of surface morphology of metallic glass Fe80Si7.43B12.57, polycrystalline W and alloy V90.62Cr4.69Ti4.69. It can be observed from the figure that the surface of metallic glass Fe80Si7.43B12.57 before and after irradiation remains smooth, without apparent irradiation damage. There are no significant changes on the surface of metallic W at the irradiation fluence of 1×1017, 2×1017 and 5×1017 ions/cm2. When the irradiation fluence reaches 1×1018 ions/cm2, the polishing induced sunken areas on some grain surfaces of metallic W became larger, and some grain surfaces became smoother. Alloy V90.62Cr4.69Ti4.69 have blistered and cracked at the fluence of 5×1017 ions/cm2. When the fluence reached 1×1018 ions/cm2, the blistering of alloy V90.62Cr4.69Ti4.69 have already became very serious, and even multi-layer scaling and peeling occurred. Larger sunken areas appeared on the surface of metallic W due to severe irradiation damage to some grains at the maximum fluence. The defects such as dislocations and grain boundaries in crystalline materials might make orientation-dependent sputtering phenomenon occur in the crystalline materials [24]. Different grains produced different morphologies under irradiation, which was related to grain orientation [25]. He2+ ions caused severe irradiation damage to alloy V90.62Cr4.69Ti4.69, and large helium bubbles were formed in the alloy for migration and release, thus resulting in blistering, peeling, cracking and other phenomena [26]. Amorphous alloy structure was uniform without any defects such as dislocations and grain boundaries in the crystalline materials, which avoided the orientation-dependent sputtering phenomenon. After irradiation, there was no apparent damage in metallic glass Fe80Si7.43B12.57, but obvious damage appeared in the crystal materials.
Fig.5 shows the AFM photographs for surface morphology of metallic glass Fe80Si7.43B12.57 and polycrystalline W before and after He2+ ion beam irradiation. As can be seen from the figure, the surface of metallic glass strip Fe80Si7.43B12.57 is very smooth, and the root mean square (Rms) roughness values ρrms are small. The surface morphology of Fe-based metallic glass shows the evolution of roughening after irradiation, the Rms roughness ρrms after irradiation is greater than that before irradiation, and as the fluence increases, the Rms roughness increases slightly. This showed that during the He2+ ion beam irradiation, the surface topography of Fe80Si7.43B12.57 was roughened due to ion bombardment [27], but with the increase of ion fluence, the roughening degree was slight. The surface Rms roughness values ρrms of metallic W were greater because of scratches and minor sunken areas left by polishing. The evolution of surface morphology of metallic W showed a roughening process with the increase of irradiation fluence, and larger sunken areas appeared on the surface of metallic W at the fluence of 1×1018 ions/cm2. The Rms roughness values ρrms increased with the increase of fluence, and the rms roughness values ρrms of metallic W significantly increased at the fluence of 1×1018 ions/cm2. This showed that during the He2+ ion beam irradiation, the surface topography of metallic W was roughened due to ion bombardment, and with the increase of fluence, the roughening degree was larger. 
TEM was used for the further research on metallic glass Fe80Si7.43B12.57. Fig.6 shows the TEM sectional image, EDS line scanning analysis image, electron diffraction image and high resolution image of metallic glass Fe80Si7.43B12.57 at a irradiation fluence of 1×1018 ions/cm2. Fig.6A shows the TEM sectional image of metallic glass Fe80Si7.43B12.57. It can be observed from the figure that relatively whitish belt layers are formed near the surface of Fe80Si7.43B12.57 and about 1.1μm away from the surface. The depth of the whitish belt layer inside Fe80Si7.43B12.57 is approximately equal to the SRIM calculated ion range, and the whitish belt layer at the range is more obvious than that near the surface. This showed that ion beam irradiation made the vacancy groups of Fe80Si7.43B12.57 appear near the surface and on the end of the ion range, and the vacancy groups on the end of the range were more than those near the surface. It can be found from the depth-dependent EDS analysis for Fe-based metallic glass component in Fig.6B that the contents of Fe element near the surface and on the end of the range are slightly less than those in the central ion trajectory, which may be due to the retention of helium ions near the ions incidence surface and on the end of the range. Fig.6C, Fig.6D and Fig.6E are the high-resolution images and relevant electron diffraction patterns of Fe-based metallic glass respectively corresponding to near the surface area (Ⅰ), in the central ion trajectory area (Ⅱ) and on the end of the range area (Ⅲ). As can be seen from the electron diffraction patterns and high resolution images, the different depth of Fe-based metallic glass after He2+ ion beam irradiation maintains a good amorphous state, and no crystals are generated, which is consistent with the results of XRD analysis [28]. Meanwhile, observed from high-resolution images, there are brighter white dots in Fe-based metallic glass within the He2+ ion range, and the number of white dots on the end of the range is more than those near the surface and in the ions trajectory. These bright dots seem to be tiny helium bubbles. Helium is an inert gas, and is substantially insoluble in most of the metallic materials. The residual irradiation helium in the metallic materials normally exist in the form of tiny bubbles. Irradiation induced near surface sputtering and more range-end vacancies enhanced the ability to capture helium to form tiny helium bubbles through retention and accumulation. More helium ions finally stopped on the end of the range through a series of cascading collisions. The retention of helium in the ions trajectory was not obvious, and the helium ions retaining on the end of the range was more than the ones retaining near the surface, therefore, the whitish belt layers near the surface and on the range end were formed, and the whitish belt layer at the range was more obvious than the one near the surface. In the research by Wang Bin, et al [29], due to the He2+ irradiation at the fluence of 2×1018 ions/cm2, obvious helium bubbles appeared in Zr-based metallic glass, and the helium bubble layer was located near the surface and on the end of the range, which is consistent with the whitish belt layers herein.
Material Performance Analysis 
Fig.7 shows the hysteresis loop of metallic glass Fe80Si7.43B12.57. As can be seen from the figure, Fe-based metallic glass has a high saturation induction density and a low coercivity, showing excellent soft magnetic properties. Due to the amorphous structural characteristics, metallic glass Fe80Si7.43B12.57 was magnetically isotropic, thus having excellent soft magnetic properties. The saturation induction density of Fe-based metallic glass after ion beam irradiation was slightly lower than the one before irradiation, the coercivity was slightly greater than the one before irradiation, but both of them were close to the ones before irradiation within the error range. After He2+ ion irradiation, Fe-based metallic glass still maintained good soft magnetic properties [30]
After He2+ irradiation, Fe80Si7.43B12.57 still remained an amorphous state without crystalline phase. The surface of Fe80Si7.43B12.57 was very smooth. Larger sunken areas appeared on the surface of metallic W at maximum fluence. V90.62Cr4.69Ti4.69 severely blistered and cracked. After irradiation, the surface roughness of Fe80Si7.43B12.57 became greater, but increased slightly with the increase of irradiation fluence. The roughness of metallic W increased substantially under the He2+ irradiation at the fluence of 1×1018 ions/cm2, which was consistent with the trend of changes in surface morphology. This showed that the surface damage in metallic glass Fe80Si7.43B12.57 after irradiation was less than those in metallic W and alloy V90.62Cr4.69Ti4.69. Although the simulation results showed that the sputtering yield of Fe80Si7.43B12.57 was greater than those of metallic W and V90.62Cr4.69Ti4.69, but due to long-range disordered structure of metallic glass Fe80Si7.43B12.57, the significant damage like the damage caused to crystal material upon exposure to irradiation did not appear on the surface, and smooth morphology could be still maintained. The material performance analysis of metallic glass Fe80Si7.43B12.57 showed that the coercivity was slightly greater, the saturation induction density was slightly lower than the one before irradiation, but excellent soft magnetic properties were still remained within the error range. ITER design only requires that Fe should have met 10dpa [31], while SRIM calculation showed that the peak DPA of metallic glass Fe80Si7.43B12.57 under the He2+ irradiation at the fluence of 1×1018 ions/cm2 was 32dpa. Although the peak DPA of metallic glass Fe80Si7.43B12.57 was greater than that of metallic W, but due to the short-range ordered and long-range disordered structure, metallic glass could not generate lattice defects like the crystal, and ion irradiation damage in metallic glass was smaller than the one in the crystal [32]; therefore, the He2+ ion beam irradiation-induced damage in metallic glass Fe80Si7.43B12.57 was not obvious compared with metallic W.
 
After different fluences of He2+ irradiation with the energy of 500keV, metallic glass strip Fe80Si7.43B12.57 remained an amorphous state, and the irradiated atoms at different depths were characterized by disordered amorphous structure. At the irradiation fluence of 1×1018 ions/cm2, there were no significant damages on the surface of Fe-based metallic glass, and tiny helium bubble layers appeared near the surface and 1.1μm away from the surface, where the depth was approximately equal to the ion range calculated using SRIM. The surface of irradiated Fe-based metallic glass was roughened, and the roughness showed a slight increase with the increase of fluence. The soft magnetic properties of Fe-based metallic glass remained good. Larger sunken areas appeared on the surface of Metallic W and the Rms roughness values ρrms increased significantly at the fluence of 1×1018 ions/cm2. Alloy V90.62Cr4.69Ti4.69 blistered and flaked at the fluence of 5×1017 ions/cm2 and even multi-layer scaling and peeling occurred when the fluence reached 1×1018 ions/cm2. The He2+ beam irradiation resistance of metallic glass Fe80Si7.43B12.57 below its glass transition temperature was better than that of metallic W, and that of alloy V90.62Cr4.69Ti4.69 was the worst.

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